Alexander Jakovlev, the nearest assistant Michael Gorbachev within "reorganization" - the scale reforms brought to ruin the USSR, - recently badly sleeps at night.
As well as many Russian liberals, JAkovleva strong nationalist painting of the new parliament which yesterday has gathered for the first time after elections upsets.
80-years JAkovlev, one of authors of "publicity" which has helped to direct Russia on a way of democratic reforms, silitsja to understand, why later after the end of the USSR his country has chosen 12 years in new parliament of nationalists, bureaucrats and communists.
" These elections became serious defeat of democracy in Russia, - speaks JAkovlev. - Bureaucrats and apparatchiki have seized power in the country. Today we have dictatorship of the bureaucrat which any more does not wait for instructions from above, and in itself is the dictator ".
JAkovlev can quite judge the recent past of Russia. The historian by formation, it heads fund " Democracy " and is engaged in rehabilitation of victims of Stalin. It was a member of last Soviet politburo and in 1991 warned Gorbachev and the country of danger of a communistic and nationalist revenge. Today it disturb also dangers of authoritarianism in Russia.
" There was, that Stalin"s huge figure, the size in all country, has collapsed on thousand fine fragments, fine dictators, former Soviet nomenklaturshchikov which have quickly adapted to new rules and now sit in parliament, establishment, hated him several years ago. These people are programmed on struggle against freedom ".
Point of view JAkovleva is illustrated with pre-election campaigns of all won parties. " Notice, that any of them has never used a word "freedom", all their slogans concerned interdictions, arrests and punishments ".
Appreciably JAkovlev assigns fault to Vladimir Putin, whose ideas about " the strong government " and "order" have turned back amplification of influence of militarians and special services.
" Militarians interpreted a word "order" as the new rockets, new tanks and additional money. Bureaucrats interpreted it as new powers in work with the market enterprises or democracy. It is restoration under the slogan of stabilization ".
As many Russian liberals, JAkovleva the quantity of the authority which have concentrated in hands of Putin and his administration last four years disturbs.
" The problem of the Kremlin administration - to help the president. But she has turned to not elected body of real authority in the country what was the Central committee of communist party. Today Putin can choose any political rate, and all of us are hostages of the president ".
However, JAkovlev blames also oligarches and richmen who " behave disgustingly " and provoke the negative attitude to democracy and the free market in Russia. " Russia - the poor country of the left orientation; demonstration of riches in which people tychut a nose, it is disgusting ".
However JAkovlev recognizes, that absence of democratic instincts lays much more deeply Putin"s policy and hostility to new Russian capitalists.
" Centuries we lived in fear. The fear and intolerance were the main ideology of the Soviet mode. We till now are not able to live in conditions of freedom ".
It speaks, that Russians still recover from the losses suffered in a left century. " We have lost 5 million person in the First world war, 13 million - in civil, 30 million - in the Second world war, 20 million - within Stalin reprisals. It were best of us, the most talented, the most courageous. Our genetic fund is exhausted ".
JAkovlev counts the most dangerous illnesses of a modern Russian society fear and indifference. It is indignant of that 44 % of the population did not participate in parliamentary elections.
" They think, that the policy does not concern their life. They are not right. It is possible to be isolated only from democratic authority, from totalitarian authority to be isolated it is impossible ".